sexta-feira, 7 de maio de 2010

Peterson 2009: raízes do planejamento urbano nos EUA

PETERSON Jon A, Journal of the American Planning Association, Spring 2009,75:2, pp.123-133.

The Birth of Organized City Planning in the United States, 1909–1910

The birth of a nationally organized city planning movement in the United States centered on a momentous, behind-the-scenes struggle between two major figures in the early history of that movement: Benjamin C. Marsh and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Both represented distinct strands of public thought within the broader sweep of Progressive Era reform. Marsh upheld social justice values. A young, feisty, idealistic executive secretary of the Committee on Congestion of Population in New York, he had made “justice to the working population” his battle cry, and with great fervor pursued the goals of a small but nationally influential band of New York City social progressives (Marsh, 1908). Olmsted embodied his era’s public-minded professionalism and its reformers’ hopes for better-ordered cities. Specifically, he hoped that cities would use planning to make their settings more efficient, more livable, more attractive, and, in all, less chaotic. As the namesake son of the founding father of American landscape architecture and the dominant voice of Olmsted Brothers,2 the nation’s premier landscape design firm, he readily grasped both the urgency and complexity of achieving these goals. At stake in 1909–1910 when the two men clashed was the future of city planning in the United States. Their struggle is the foundation story of the urban planning field; the issues raised reverberate to this day.(Continua)

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