sábado, 3 de agosto de 2019

Cem anos de segregação

Deu no New York Times
03-08-2019, por Adam Green (prof de História da Universidade de Chicago)
How a Brutal Race Riot Shaped Modern Chicago
Chicago Tribune historical photo
(..) If the 1920s saw an upsurge in black culture and awareness, it also saw a sustained, violent backlash by whites, from the rebirth of the Klan to an epidemic of lynching to housing segregation.
That backlash was on stark display in Chicago. The city’s white real estate agents helped pioneer new tactics in segregation. By 1927 the Chicago Real Estate Board had drafted its own version of a restrictive covenant, a binding contract enjoining white homeowners from selling property to nonwhites. Within a decade, such contracts governed three-fourths of Chicago’s residential property. Upheld routinely by municipal judges, restrictive covenants carried the force of law until overturned by the Supreme Court in 1948.
Other measures, including redlining, contract selling, mortgage discrimination and steering, maintained racial exclusion across much of Chicago long after the passage of national civil rights laws in the 1960s.
Together with continued discrimination against black renters, and an expansive public housing system dedicated to shifting poorer African-Americans out of the general housing market, these policies deepened racial separation in the city with each passing decade. By 1970, census data certified Chicago as a hyper-segregated municipality, a designation it would retain until the start of the new millennium. The collateral effects of this separation consigned blacks to grossly unequal resources and outcomes related to employment, education, housing, health and safety that inform the stark social problems of the city today. (Continua)

Ver também
BYRNES, Mark. “40 Years of Chicago's Rising Inequality, in One GIF”, CityLAb 02-04-2014

Chicago 1970-2012 - Renda familiar média como % da média metropolitana 
Por Daniel Hertz, masters student at the 
Harris School of Public Policy at the University of Chicago